William Lyon Mackenzie King fonds [multiple media]
Record Information – Brief
William Lyon Mackenzie King fonds [multiple media]
- Hierarchical level:
- 1641, 1703, 1815-1969.
- R10383-0-6-E, MG26-J
- Type of material:
- Textual material, Photographs, Moving images, Sound recordings, Objects (including medals and pins), Art, Architectural and technical drawings, Maps and cartographic material
- Found in:
- Archives / Collections and Fonds
- Item ID number:
- Link to this page:
This link identifies the web page describing this particular record. Unlike the temporary link in your browser, this link will allow you to access, and reference, this page in the future. To link to this descriptive record, copy and paste the URL where ever needed (wiki, blog, document).http://central.bac-lac.gc.ca/.redirect?app=fonandcol&id=98362&lang=eng
- Context of this record:
Record Information – Details
- Fonds includes:
159 lower level description(s)View lower level description(s)
- 1641, 1703, 1815-1969.
- Bilingual equivalent:
- Place of creation:
- No place, unknown, or undetermined
316.01 m of textual records.
1 collage : essay.
176 audio discs (ca. 20 h, 46 min) : some moulds, some silver.
3 film reels (ca. 10 min, 30 s).
ca. 25,455 photographs : b&w.
588 prints : mezzotints, wood engraving, lino engraving, etchings, lithographs, aquatints, photopress prints, photocopies, offset lithographs, photomechanical, photograph, heliogravure, "Tobacco" prints, offset lithograph postcards.
35 drawings : chalk and charcoal, pencil, ink, pen and ink, charcoal.
26 objects : some artworks, some medals.
31 medals : silver, gold, bronze.
41 paintings : oil, oil & pastel.
1 silk embroidery.
1 cut and paste silhouette.
55 architectural drawings
- Language of material:
- Scope and content:
Fonds documents the life of the Rt. Honourable William Lyon Mackenzie King. The King papers constitute a remarkable and detailed collection which chronicles his life, activities and interests. By extension, the fonds provides immense detail on many aspects of Canadian society in the first half of the twentieth century, ranging from Canadian culture to Canada's contribution during the Second World War. The fonds pertains to King's political career as well as his personal life. It contains extensive correspondence, both official and personal, as well as a vast array of memorabilia, such as detailed documentation on his grandfather, William Lyon Mackenzie and the 1939 Royal Tour. The fonds includes King's personal diaries, financial records and collected family correspondence. There are also records pertaining to the management of King's estate after his death. In addition, the fonds contains a collage for a proposed commemorative stamp to honour Canadian, American, and British friendship, 1941. Medallic material documents King's involvement in a variety of activities and includes medals bestowed upon him in recognition of achievements. The fonds also consists of sound recordings of speeches given by King,1925-1950; as well as moving images of King appearing at various events including the Glengarry Highland Games, Maxville, Ontario, 1940-1948. King's personal and political life is also documented through photographs. Included are formal portraits; snapshots of family, friends and dignitaries; photos of significant events in King's career such as the 1939 Royal Tour and the Quebec Conference, 1943. The fonds also consists of original works of art and prints amassed by W.L.M. King throughout his lifetime including portraits, landscapes and city views, genre scenes, caricatures and other artistic subjects, 1800-1955. Fonds consists of maps relating to training schools, depots and recruting centres establsihed under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan; a map showing proposed Prince Rupert Terrace Road; maps of Southern England relating to King's tour in 1944 and a North American road map; maps relating to Kingsmere; and maps of the National Capital Region. Fonds also consists of architectural drawings relating to an unidetified log summer house and perspective drawings of a proposed building on Elgin Street in Ottawa; brochures related to greenhouses, sunrooms and thatched roofs; drawings relating to Kingsmere and Laurier House; plans relating to the "Woodside" house in Kitchener, the Supreme Court of Canada Building in Ottawa and the Mackenzie House in Toronto; and a drawing of a proposed commemorative square on the present site of Confederation Square, Ottawa. Fonds also contains correspondence to William Lyon McKenzie King which was included in the books which were presented to him . These letters accompanied his book collection.
- Additional name(s):
- Biography/Administrative history:
King, William Lyon Mackenzie, 1874-1950 : Prime minister of Canada (1921-26, 1926-30, 1935-48) William Lyon Mackenzie King was born at Berlin (Kitchener), Ontario on 17 December 1874. He was the maternal grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie, leader of the 1837 Rebellion in Upper Canada. He attended the University of Toronto, studied law at Osgoode Hall, and worked briefly as a journalist before earning a master's degree in economics at the University of Chicago and a doctorate at Harvard. As an expert on industrial relations, King was appointed the deputy minister of the new department of labour in 1900, in which role he oversaw the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act (1907) and served on royal commissions. He was elected as a Liberal in the riding of Waterloo North in 1908, and served as minister of labour (1909-11), in Sir Wilfrid Laurier's cabinet. After being defeated in the 1911 election, he worked for the Liberal Party in Ottawa. In 1914, King began working in industrial relations in the United States, principally for the Rockefeller Foundation. He remained involved in Canadian politics and ran unsuccessfully in the riding of North York in 1917. King succeeded Laurier as Liberal leader in 1919 and returned to parliament for the riding of Prince. King was elected prime minister in 1921, serving concurrently as secretary of state for external affairs. His minority government focussed on repairing wartime social divisions especially between Quebec and English-Canada, and between Canadians of northern European descent and other ethnic communities. He also lowered taxes and tariffs, built railways, supported agricultural development and tried to ease tensions with organised labour. Internationally, King championed Canadian autonomy in foreign affairs. King led another minority government after the 1925 election. He lost his own seat, but was then elected for Prince Albert. When a scandal in the Department of Customs threatened his government, King asked the governor general to dissolve parliament in June 1926. Instead, the governor general invited the leader of the opposition, Arthur Meighen, to form a government, which fell on a motion of confidence after only three days. The ensuing election returned King to power with another minority. He introduced old age pensions, tax reforms, clarified Canada's Dominion status and appointed diplomatic envoys. King lost the 1930 election, but returned to power in 1935 with the largest majority up to that point in Canadian history. He expanded the government's economic role through employment and agricultural relief, by trade deals with the United States and Britain and by turning the Bank of Canada into a crown corporation. Provincial rights were explored through the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1937-40). King also established the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1936), Trans-Canada Airlines (1937), and the National Film Board (1939). As war loomed, King increased defence spending while advocating for a diplomatic resolution. After winning another majority in March 1940, King built up Canada's military, acted as an intermediary between Britain and the United States, launched the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (1939) introduced conscription under the National Resources Mobilization Act (1940), expanded the National Research Council to conduct military research and hosted Allied strategic conferences in 1943 and 1944. He also prepared for post-war reconstruction by introducing unemployment insurance (1940) and family allowances (1944), thereby laying the foundations of the modern Canadian social welfare system. The Liberals won the election of June 1945, but King lost his seat, only to be elected for the riding of Glengarry. He helped create the United Nations (1945), dismantled wartime economic and social controls, defined Canadian citizens as distinct from British subjects under the Canadian Citizenship Act (1946), subsidised medical services and paved the way for Newfoundland's entry into Confederation in 1949. King was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1947, and retired the following year. He never married. He died at Kingsmere, Quebec on 22 July 1950 and was buried in Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery. King's racist, nativist beliefs influenced his actions in government. His Harvard PhD thesis, entitled Oriental Immigration to Canada, argued that the country should restrict Far Eastern immigrants in order to remain a 'White Man's country.' As prime minister, he banned Chinese immigration almost completely under the Chinese Immigration Act (1923), barred European Jewish refugees in the 1930s, including those who arrived on the ship MS St Louis in June 1939. During the Second World War, he dispossessed and interned approximately 21,000 Japanese-Canadians as 'enemy aliens,' along with smaller numbers of Italian and German-Canadians. The damage done by King's policies and actions has been acknowledged in recent years. The prime minister at the time apologised on behalf of the government for the internment of Japanese-Canadians in 1988; for declaring Italian-Canadians enemy aliens in 1990 and for their internment in 2021; and for rejecting Jewish refugees and specifically those aboard the MS St Louis in 2018.
- Finding aid:
Textual records (Electronic) Each series has its own finding aid identified by series number (ie: MSS0502-J1). Most finding aids are electronic, however some exist only in paper format. Consult the Archivist for any possible finding aids in process. MSS0502 (Restrictions not set)
http://data2.archives.ca/pdf/pdf001/p000002053.pdfSound recordings and moving images: (Electronic) See MISACS for item level descriptions.Objects: (Electronic) See ICON database for item level descriptions of medallic material.Objects: (Paper) Medal inventory available.Art: (Electronic) Item level descriptions available in paper and online format.Photographs: (Paper) Partial box list finding aid (FA-500) and other item level descriptions are available. FA-500 (99: Closed pending processing)
http://data2.archives.ca/pdf/pdf001/p000001996.pdfTextual records (Paper) Each series has its own finding aid identified by series number (ie: MSS0502-J1). Most finding aids are electronic, however some exist only in paper format. Consult the Archivist for any possible finding aids in process. MSS0502 (Restrictions not set)Cartographic material (Other) Please consult lower level descriptions. (90: Open)Architectural, technical drawings (Other) Please consult lower level descriptions. (90: Open)
- Additional information:
- General Note:
- The William Lyon Mackenzie King Papers were deposited in the Public Archives of Canada by the terms of Mr. King's will. The papers were the property of his literary executors until 22 July 1975 when they became the property of the Crown. The final transfer occurred 30 June 1977., Some of the moving image material was acquired from Laurier House in 1968.
- Arrangement note:
- The fonds was at one time broadly subdivided into public and personal records. These designations have been removed from the description because they did not adequately reflect the contents of the records. The fundamental arrangement of the records has not changed, nor has any information been lost.
- Availability of other formats note:
- The King diaries (Series J13) have been digitized and are available online. The diaries, with extensive additional information, can be viewed at 2665460
- Subject heading:
- Former archival reference no.:
Ordering and Viewing Options
- Conditions of access:
Photographs: No restrictions. Item less than 50 years old: Various copyrights. Item more than 50 years old: Copyright expired. Credit: Name of photographer / National Archives of Canada.
Sound recordings and moving images: Reproduction and use in any form requires the written permission of the copyright holders.
Objects: Must be consulted under close supervision for conservation reasons. Copyright: Various copyrights. Credit: National Archives of Canada.
Art: Some restrictions on reproduction. Various copyrights, some unknown. Credit: National Archives of Canada. Art material must be consulted under close supervision for conservation reasons.
Cartographic material: No restrictions. Credit Library and Archives Canada.
Architectural, technical drawings: No restrictions. Credit Library and Archives Canada.
- Date modified: